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Andreas Cellarius – Antique Atlas of the Geocentric Ptolemaic Cosmos, “Harmonia Macrocosmica”, 1660.

Orbiting a large central Earth, the Planets are depicted as Star-like shapes, each identified with its traditional Symbol. The Zodiac, divided into twelve thirty-degree divisions of Celestial longitude, defines the apparent path of the Sun through the Constellations as seen from Earth. 
The axis of the Universe is defined by the Terrestrial poles, and the Earth’s equator is projected outward, creating a Celestial equator as well. Ptolemy himself might be represented by one of the figures on the lower right, in a crumbling Alexandria, possibly also symbolic of the decline of his Cosmological design, following the revolutionary findings of Copernicus.

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