Neolithic Carved Stone Polyhedra.Euclid, 300 BC and the Ancient Greeks, in their inherited love for Geometry, called the Five Solids shown above, the Atoms of the Universe. 

In the same way that we today believe that all Matter is made up of combinations of Atoms, so the Ancient Greeks also believed that all Physical matter is made up of the Atoms of the Platonic Solids and that all matter has a Mystical side represented by their Connection with Earth, Air, Fire, Water and Aether. 

Similar to our conventional Atom model which shows a Nucleus surrounded by Electrons in orbits creating Spheres of Energy, the Greeks felt that these Platonic Solids also have a Spherical property, where one Platonic Solid fits in a Sphere, which alternately fits inside another Platonic Solid, again fitting in another Sphere. It is fascinating to see how any one of these Solids can fit inside one another. The concept of one Sphere fitting inside another Sphere is surprisingly frequently seen in different cultures. Indeed, the Mechanism of Platonic Solids is so perfect, that perhaps as we are approaching in this study, their concept of Platonics as being the building blocks of Matter might be more evolved than our present knowledge of the Atom model. 

As shown in the photograph above, as in so many other aspects of their Science and Philosophy, the Greeks were not the originators of these concepts. The photograph is of a collection Neolithic Stones, unmistakably showing the same basic “Platonic” Shapes. These are at least 3,000 years old (>1000BC). Indeed, we know that from the Vedic times, around 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C., Indians (Indo-Aryans) had classified the Material world into the Four Elements; Earth (Prithvi), Fire (Agni), Air (Maya) and Water (Apa). To these Four Elements was added a Fifth one; Ether or Akasha. According to some scholars these Five Elements or Pancha Mahabhootas, were also identified with the various human senses of Perception; Earth with smell, Air with feeling, Fire with vision, Water with taste and Ether with sound. Whatever the validity behind this interpretation, it is true that since very Ancient times Indians had perceived the Material world as comprising these 5 Elements. 

The information one can get from these carved out Shapes shows that a highly developed generation of human kind gave a lot of scientific importance to these Shapes, and perhaps carving out these Stones was one of their attempts to pass over their Knowledge to others, including us.